Publications

CSET produces evidence-driven analysis in a variety of forms, from informative graphics and translations to expert testimony and published reports. Our key areas of inquiry are the foundations of artificial intelligence — such as talent, data and computational power — as well as how AI can be used in cybersecurity and other national security settings. We also do research on the policy tools that can be used to shape AI’s development and use, and on biotechnology.

Report

Harnessed Lightning

Ryan Fedasiuk Jennifer Melot Ben Murphy
| October 2021

This report examines nearly 350 artificial intelligence-related equipment contracts awarded by the People’s Liberation Army and state-owned defense enterprises in 2020 to assess how the Chinese military is adopting AI. The report identifies China’s key AI defense industry suppliers, highlights gaps in U.S. export control policies, and contextualizes the PLA’s AI investments within China’s broader strategy to compete militarily with the United States.

Applications and implications


China


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Analysis

Chokepoints

Ben Murphy
| May 2022

China’s "Science and Technology Daily," a state-run newspaper, published a revealing series of articles in 2018 on 35 different Chinese technological import dependencies. The articles, accessible here in English for the first time, express concern that strategic Chinese industries are vulnerable to any disruption to their supply of specific U.S., Japanese, and European “chokepoint” technologies. This issue brief summarizes the article series and analyzes the Chinese perspective on these import dependencies and their causes.

Analysis

Quad AI

Husanjot Chahal Ngor Luong Sara Abdulla Margarita Konaev
| May 2022

Through the Quad forum, the United States, Australia, Japan and India have committed to pursuing an open, accessible and secure technology ecosystem and offering a democratic alternative to China’s techno-authoritarian model. This report assesses artificial intelligence collaboration across the Quad and finds that while Australia, Japan and India each have close AI-related research and investment ties to both the United States and China, they collaborate far less with one another.

Analysis

Preserving the Chokepoints

Andre Barbe Will Hunt
| May 2022

Offshoring the production of semiconductor manufacturing equipment would remove an important source of leverage over China and make the United States more dependent on other countries for some of the most important inputs to semiconductor manufacturing. This brief explores the factors driving U.S. SME firms to offshore production and what can be done to slow or reverse offshoring.

Analysis

Training Tomorrow’s AI Workforce

Diana Gehlhaus Luke Koslosky
| April 2022

Community and technical colleges offer enormous potential to grow, sustain, and diversify the U.S. artificial intelligence (AI) talent pipeline. However, these institutions are not being leveraged effectively. This report evaluates current AI-related programs and the associated number of graduates. The authors find that few AI and AI-related degrees and certificates are being awarded today. They propose five recommendations to address existing challenges and harness the potential of these institutions to train tomorrow’s AI workforce.

Analysis

The Long-Term Stay Rates of International STEM PhD Graduates

Jack Corrigan James Dunham Remco Zwetsloot
| April 2022

This issue brief uses data from the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Doctorate Recipients to explore how many of the international students who earn STEM PhDs from U.S. universities stay in the country after graduation. The authors trace the journeys that these graduates take through the immigration system and find that most remain in the United States long after earning their degrees.

CSET submitted this comment to the Department of Commerce to inform incentives, infrastructure, and research and development needed to support a strong domestic semiconductor industry.

Analysis

Securing AI

Andrew Lohn Wyatt Hoffman
| March 2022

Like traditional software, vulnerabilities in machine learning software can lead to sabotage or information leakages. Also like traditional software, sharing information about vulnerabilities helps defenders protect their systems and helps attackers exploit them. This brief examines some of the key differences between vulnerabilities in traditional and machine learning systems and how those differences can affect the vulnerability disclosure and remediation processes.

Data Brief

A Competitive Era for China’s Universities

Ryan Fedasiuk Alan Omar Loera Martinez Anna Puglisi
| March 2022

This brief illuminates the scale of Chinese government funding for higher education, science, and technology by exploring budget and expense reports for key government organizations and 34 of China’s most elite “Double First Class” universities. Chinese political leaders view elite universities as key components of the country’s military modernization, economic growth, and soft power; a situation that presents security risks for international partners.

CSET submitted this comment to the Office of Science and Technology Policy on updating the National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan.

CHIPS for America Act funding will result in the construction of new semiconductor fabrication facilities (“fabs”) in the United States, employing tens of thousands of workers. This policy brief assesses the occupations and backgrounds that will be most in-demand among new fabs, as well as options for ensuring availability of the necessary talent. Findings suggest the need for new immigration pathways for experienced foreign fab workers, and investments in workforce development.