Publications

CSET produces evidence-driven analysis in a variety of forms, from informative graphics and translations to expert testimony and published reports. Our key areas of inquiry are the foundations of artificial intelligence — such as talent, data and computational power — as well as how AI can be used in cybersecurity and other national security settings. We also do research on the policy tools that can be used to shape AI’s development and use, and on biotechnology.

Report

China’s STI Operations

William Hannas Huey-Meei Chang
| January 2021

Open source intelligence (OSINT) and science and technology intelligence (STI) are realized differently in the United States and China, China putting greater value on both. In the United States’ understanding, OSINT “enables” classified reporting, while in China it is the intelligence of first resort. This contrast extends to STI which has a lower priority in the U.S. system, whereas China and its top leaders personally lavish great attention on STI and rely on it for national decisions. Establishing a “National S&T Analysis Center” within the U.S. government could help to address these challenges.

China


Cybersecurity


Data, algorithms and models


Hardware and compute


Filter publications

See our original translation of a 2018 PRC notice on cybersecurity competitions.

Read our original translation of China's 14th Five-Year Plan, which was passed by the National People's Congress in March, 2021, and covers the years 2021-2025.

Data Brief

AI and Industry

Eri Phinisee Autumn Toney Melissa Flagg
| May 2021

Artificial intelligence is said to be transforming the global economy and society in what some dub the “fourth industrial revolution.” This data brief analyzes media representations of AI and the alignments, or misalignments, with job postings that include the AI-related skills needed to make AI a practical reality. This potential distortion is important as the U.S. Congress places an increasing emphasis on AI. If government funds are shifted away from other areas of science and technology, based partly on the representations that leaders and the public are exposed to in the media, it is important to understand how those representations align with real jobs across the country.

Data Brief

Machine Intelligence for Scientific Discovery and Engineering Invention

Matthew Daniels Autumn Toney Melissa Flagg Charles Yang
| May 2021

The advantages of nations depend in part on their access to new inventions—and modern applications of artificial intelligence can help accelerate the creation of new inventions in the years ahead. This data brief is a first step toward understanding how modern AI and machine learning have begun accelerating growth across a wide array of science and engineering disciplines in recent years.

Analysis

Contending Frames

Andrew Imbrie Rebecca Gelles James Dunham Catherine Aiken
| May 2021

The narrative of an artificial intelligence “arms race” among the great powers has become shorthand to describe evolving dynamics in the field. Narratives about AI matter because they reflect and shape public perceptions of the technology. In this issue brief, the second in a series examining rhetorical frames in AI, the authors compare four narrative frames that are prominent in public discourse: AI Competition, Killer Robots, Economic Gold Rush and World Without Work.

Read our original translation of a 2021 PRC notice from China's Ministry of Commerce detailing new policies to encourage foreign investment in key sectors.

Read our original translation of a PRC report about establishing a technology transfer center in Shenzhen, China

Analysis

A DPA for the 21st Century

Jamie Baker
| April 2021

The Defense Production Act can be an effective tool to bring U.S. industrial might to bear on broader national security challenges, including those in technology. If updated and used to its full effect, the DPA could be leveraged to encourage development and governance of artificial intelligence. And debate about the DPA’s use for AI purposes can serve to shape and condition expectations about the role the law’s authorities should or could play, as well as to identify essential legislative gaps.

Data Brief

Mapping Research Agendas in U.S. Corporate AI Laboratories

Rebecca Gelles Tim Hwang Simon Rodriguez
| April 2021

Leading U.S. companies are investing in the broad research field of artificial intelligence (AI), but where, specifically, are they making these investments? This data brief provides an analysis of the research papers published by Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, IBM, and Microsoft over the past decade to better understand what work their labs are prioritizing, and the degree to which these companies have similar or different research agendas overall. The authors find that major “AI companies” are often focused on very different subfields within AI, and that the private sector may be failing to make research investments consistent with ensuring long-term national competitiveness.

Analysis

Ethics and Artificial Intelligence

Jamie Baker
| April 2021

The law plays a vital role in how artificial intelligence can be developed and used in ethical ways. But the law is not enough when it contains gaps due to lack of a federal nexus, interest, or the political will to legislate. And law may be too much if it imposes regulatory rigidity and burdens when flexibility and innovation are required. Sound ethical codes and principles concerning AI can help fill legal gaps. In this paper, CSET Distinguished Fellow James E. Baker offers a primer on the limits and promise of three mechanisms to help shape a regulatory regime that maximizes the benefits of AI and minimizes its potential harms.