CSET produces evidence-driven analysis in a variety of forms, from informative graphics and translations to expert testimony and published reports. Our key areas of inquiry are the foundations of artificial intelligence — such as talent, data and computational power — as well as how AI can be used in cybersecurity and other national security settings. We also do research on the policy tools that can be used to shape AI’s development and use, and on biotechnology.


Harnessed Lightning

Ryan Fedasiuk Jennifer Melot Ben Murphy
| October 2021

This report examines nearly 350 artificial intelligence-related equipment contracts awarded by the People’s Liberation Army and state-owned defense enterprises in 2020 to assess how the Chinese military is adopting AI. The report identifies China’s key AI defense industry suppliers, highlights gaps in U.S. export control policies, and contextualizes the PLA’s AI investments within China’s broader strategy to compete militarily with the United States.

Applications and implications


Filter publications

See our original translation of a 2020 document from China's standards-setting body calling for specific standards for AI technologies.

See our original translation of a Standards Development Announcement from China's state press agency, Xinhua News Agency.

See our original translation of a Chinese state-run think tank's report assessing the country's computing power.


Staying Ahead

Diana Gehlhaus
| November 2021

This research agenda provides a roadmap for the next phase of CSET’s line of research on the U.S. AI workforce. Our goal is to assist policymakers and other stakeholders in the national security community to create policies that will ensure the United States maintains its competitive advantage in AI talent. We welcome comments, feedback and input on this vision at

Data Snapshot

Exploring bioinformatics through the Map of Science

Sara Abdulla
| November 17, 2021

Data Snapshots are informative descriptions and quick analyses that dig into CSET’s unique data resources. Snapshots explore CSET’s Map of Science and the underlying data and analytic utility of this new tool. Check in every two weeks to see our newest Snapshot, and explore CSET’s Map of Science user interface, which enables users to interact with the Map directly.

Data Brief

Research Impact, Research Output, and the Role of International Collaboration

Autumn Toney Melissa Flagg
| November 2021

This data brief explores how international collaboration relates to the impact and output of research publications. Focusing on the top 10 countries with the highest publication output from 2010 to 2019, the authors provide a comprehensive analysis across the major fields of science and technology.

Data Brief

Classifying AI Systems

Catherine Aiken
| November 2021

This brief explores the development and testing of artificial intelligence system classification frameworks intended to distill AI systems into concise, comparable and policy-relevant dimensions. Comparing more than 1,800 system classifications, it points to several factors that increase the utility of a framework for human classification of AI systems and enable AI system management, risk assessment and governance.

Formal Response

Recommendations to OSTP on National Security Presidential Memorandum-33

Emily Weinstein
| November 9, 2021

CSET's Emily Weinstein and Ainikki Riikonen of the Center for a New American Security submitted this comment to the Office of Science and Technology Policy in response to a request for recommendations on securing U.S. government research and development against foreign government interference and exploitation.

Data Brief

Superconductor Electronics Research

November 2021

Devices based on superconductor electronics can achieve much higher energy efficiency than standard electronics. Research in superconductor electronics could advance a range of commercial and defense priorities, with potential applications for supercomputing, artificial intelligence, sensors, signal processing, and quantum computing. This brief identifies the countries most actively contributing to superconductor electronics research and assesses their relative competitiveness in terms of both research output and funding.

See our original translation of excerpts from Shanghai’s five-year plan for S&T development.