The following document is “Made in China 2025,” one of China’s most important industrial policies. Made in China 2025, formulated in 2015, sets milestones for China to reach by 2020 and 2025 in service of its goal of upgrading the PRC manufacturing sector. The Made in China 2025 strategy aims both to increase the competitiveness and global market share of the Chinese manufacturing industry and to reduce China’s dependence on foreign manufactured goods.
The Chinese source text is available online at: http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2015-05/19/content_9784.htm
An archived version of the Chinese source text is available online at: https://perma.cc/9PA3-WYBA
U.S. $1 ≈ 6.3 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (RMB), as of March 8, 2022.
Notice of the State Council on the Publication of Made in China 2025
(2015) No. 28
To the people’s governments of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, and all ministries and commissions of the State Council and their respective agencies: Made in China 2025 is hereby printed and distributed. Please implement it meticulously.
May 8, 2015
(This document has been abridged)
Made in China 2025
Manufacturing is the mainstay of the national economy, the basis on which the nation is established (立国之本), an instrument of rejuvenation, and the foundation of a world power.1 Since the beginning of industrial civilization in the middle of the 18th century, the history of the rise and fall of world powers and the history of the struggle of the Chinese nation has repeatedly proved that without a strong manufacturing industry, there will be no country and no nation. Building an internationally competitive manufacturing industry is the only way China can enhance its comprehensive national strength, ensure national security, and build itself into a world power.
Since the founding of New China [in 1949], especially since the beginning of reform and opening up [in 1978], China’s manufacturing industry has continued to develop rapidly. A complete, independent, and whole industrial system has been built, which has firmly promoted the process of industrialization and modernization, significantly enhanced comprehensive national strength, and supported China’s status as a great power (大国) in the world. However, China’s manufacturing industry is still large but not strong compared with globally advanced levels, with significant gaps in independent innovation (自主创新) capabilities, resource utilization efficiency, industrial structure level, degree of informatization, and quality and efficiency. The tasks of transformation, upgrading, and development by leaps and bounds (跨越发展) are urgent and daunting.
At present, the new round of S&T revolution and industrial transformation has formed a historical intersection with the accelerated transformation of China’s economic development model, reshaping the international industrial division of labor. We must firmly seize this great historical opportunity. Per the “four comprehensivelys”2 strategic layout, we must implement the manufacturing powerhouse (制造强国) strategy, and strengthen overall planning and forward-looking deployment. After three decades of hard work and by the 100th anniversary  of the founding of New China, build China into a manufacturing powerhouse that leads the development of the global manufacturing industry. Lay a solid foundation for realizing the Chinese Dream (中国梦) of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
Made in China 2025 is a program of action for the first ten years of China’s implementation of the manufacturing powerhouse strategy.
1. Development situation and environment
(1) The structure of global manufacturing faces major adjustments:
The deep integration of new generation information technology and manufacturing trigger far-reaching industrial changes, forming new production methods, industrial forms, business models, and economic growth points. All countries are intensifying S&T innovation and promoting breakthroughs in 3D printing, mobile internet, cloud computing, big data, bioengineering, new energy, and new materials. Smart manufacturing based on cyber-physical systems, such as intelligent equipment and smart factories, is leading the transformation of manufacturing methods; network crowdsourcing, collaborative design, mass customization, precise supply chain management, total life cycle management, and e-commerce are reshaping the industrial value chain system; smart terminal products such as wearable smart products, smart home appliances, and intelligent vehicles continue to expand into new fields of manufacturing. The transformation, upgrading, innovation, and development of China’s manufacturing industry are ushering in a major opportunity.
The pattern of global industrial competition is undergoing major adjustments, and China faces enormous challenges in this new round of development. After the international financial crisis, developed countries have implemented the strategy of “re-industrialization” one after another, reshaping unique competitive advantages in the manufacturing industry and accelerating a new round of global trade and investment. Some developing countries are also speeding up their planning and deployment, actively participating in the re-division of global industries, undertaking industrial and capital transfers, and expanding the international market space. China’s manufacturing industry faces the severe challenge of a “two-way squeeze” from developed countries and other developing countries. It must look to the world, step up strategic deployment, focus on building a manufacturing powerhouse, shore up its roots, and turn challenges into opportunities to seize the commanding heights of a new round of competition in the manufacturing industry.
(2) China’s economic development environment has undergone significant changes:
With the simultaneous advancement of new industrialization, informatization (信息化), urbanization, and agricultural modernization, the potential for ultra-large domestic demand has been continuously released, providing a broad space for developing China’s manufacturing industry. The new equipment needs of various industries, the unique consumption needs of the people, the new livelihood needs of social management and public services, and the new security needs of national defense building all require the manufacturing industry to rapidly improve its level and capability in major technological equipment innovation, consumer product quality and safety, supply of public service facilities and equipment, and defense equipment support. Comprehensively deepening reform and further opening up will continuously stimulate the vitality and creativity of the manufacturing industry and promote the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry.
China’s economic development has entered a new normal, and the development of the manufacturing industry is facing new challenges. Constraints on resources and the environment continue to grow, the cost of factors of production (生产要素) such as labor continues to rise, and the growth rate of investment and exports has slowed significantly. To form a new driving force for economic growth and create unique advantages in international competition, the focus is on the manufacturing industry, the difficulty lies in the manufacturing industry, and the way out is also through the manufacturing industry.
(3) The task of building a manufacturing powerhouse is arduous and urgent:
After decades of rapid development, the scale of China’s manufacturing industry ranks first in the world, and a complete, independent, and whole manufacturing system has been established, which has become an important cornerstone to support China’s economic and social development and an essential force for promoting global economic growth. Continuous technological innovation has dramatically improved the comprehensive competitiveness of China’s manufacturing industry. Breakthroughs have been made in manned spaceflight, manned deep diving, large aircraft, Beidou satellite navigation, supercomputers, high-speed rail equipment, million kilowatt-class power generation equipment, 10,000-meter deep-sea oil drilling equipment, and other major technological equipment, forming several well-positioned industries and key enterprises with international competitiveness, giving China the foundation and conditions for building itself into an industrial powerhouse (工业强国).
However, China is still in the process of industrialization, and there is still a major gap compared with advanced countries. The manufacturing industry is large but not strong. The capacity for independent innovation is weak, and key and core technologies (关键核心技术) and high-end equipment are highly dependent on foreign countries. The manufacturing innovation system with enterprises as the mainstay is not perfect. Product quality is not high, and there is a lack of world-renowned brands. The efficiency of resource and energy utilization is low, and the problem of environmental pollution is more pronounced. The industrial structure is unreasonable, and the development of high-end equipment manufacturing and producer services lags behind other countries. The level of informatization is not high, and the depth of integration with industrialization is insufficient. The degree of industrial internationalization is not high, and the globalization of enterprises is inadequate. To promote the construction of a manufacturing powerhouse, we must focus on solving the above problems.
To build a manufacturing powerhouse, we must firmly seize this rare strategic opportunity, actively respond to challenges, strengthen overall planning, highlight innovation drivers, formulate special policies, give full play to institutional advantages, mobilize the whole of society to work hard, rely more on Chinese equipment and depend on Chinese brands, realize the transformation from Made in China (中国制造) to Created in China (中国创造), the transformation of Chinese speed to Chinese quality, the transformation of Chinese products to Chinese brands, and complete the strategic task of growing Chinese manufacturing from big to strong.
2. Strategic directive and objectives
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- Translator’s note: This translation renders the Chinese word 强国 qiángguó—which literally means “strong nation”—in English in two different ways, depending on context. Where the translator judges that qiángguó is used in the general geopolitical sense, it is translated as “world power.” Where the translator judges that the text refers to a specific flavor of qiángguó, it is translated as “powerhouse,” as in the phrase “manufacturing powerhouse” (制造强国). For a more thorough discussion in English of the Chinese word qiángguó, see: https://www.newamerica.org/cybersecurity-initiative/digichina/blog/lexicon-wangluo-qiangguo/.
- Translator’s note: The “four comprehensivelys” (“四个全面”) are: comprehensively establish a well-off society (小康社会), comprehensively deepen reform, comprehensively govern the country according to law, and comprehensively govern the party strictly.