The following document is the 2022 budget for China’s Ministry of Education. The ministry devotes the vast majority of its budget to fully funding 75 of China’s top universities, including all scientific research undertaken by them. This year, the ministry is also funding the launch of a long-term project to incorporate more Xi Jinping-related content into mandatory Marxist ideology courses for Chinese college students.
The Chinese source text is available online at: http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A05/s7499/202203/W020220324585210061715.pdf
An archived version of the Chinese source text is available online at: https://perma.cc/UV6C-S8X6
U.S. $1 ≈ 6.6 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (RMB), as of May 24, 2022.
Ministry of Education 2022 Budget
I. Ministry of Education Overview
(i) Ministerial Responsibilities
The Ministry of Education (MOE) is a ministry of the State Council. Its primary responsibilities include:
- To draw up directives, policies, and plans for educational reform and development; and to draft relevant rules and regulations, and supervise their implementation.
- To take charge of the overall planning, coordination, and management of all forms of education at various levels; to formulate, in collaboration with relevant departments, the standards for the setting-up of schools of all types at various levels; to guide the reform of education and teaching methods; and to take charge of the statistics, analysis, and release of basic information on education.
- To advance the balanced development of compulsory education and promote educational fairness; to take charge of the macro-guidance and coordination of compulsory education; and to direct regular high school education, preschool education, and special education. To lay down requirements for and basic documents for teaching in elementary education; to organize the examination and approval of unified course materials for elementary education; and to carry on quality-oriented education in an all-round way.
- To formulate rules and standards for education supervision and guide nationwide education supervision; to organize the implementation of supervision and evaluation, inspection and acceptance, and quality monitoring of all forms of education at various levels in accordance with the law; to draft national education supervision reports; and to undertake the concrete work of the Education Oversight Commission (教育督导委员会) of the State Council.
- To provide guidance for the development and reform of employment-oriented vocational education; to formulate the curriculum catalogs for vocational secondary education, documents for the guidance of teaching, and standards of teaching assessment; and to guide the compiling of teaching materials for vocational secondary education and to improve occupational counseling.
- To direct the development and reform of higher education and further deepen the reform of the administrative system of universities directly administered by the Ministry of Education. To formulate the curriculum catalogs and documents for the guidance of teaching; to examine and verify, in collaboration with relevant departments, the establishment, renaming, closure, and reorganization of higher education institutions; to provide overall guidance for various forms of higher education and continuing education; and to provide guidance for the improvement of higher education assessment.
- To take charge of the overall management of the educational funding under the jurisdiction of this Ministry, to take part in formulating policies for the raising and allocation of educational funding, and capital investment in construction for educational purposes, and to prepare statistics on expenditure on education across the country.
- To plan and direct educational work for ethnic minority groups and to coordinate educational aid to ethnic minority groups and ethnic minority areas.
- To direct ideological and political work, moral education work, physical, health, and art education work, and national defense education work in all types of schools at various levels; and to direct party building work and stability work at higher education institutions.
- To administer teachers’ work; to formulate and supervise the implementation of the standards of qualification for teachers of various types and at various levels together in collaboration with relevant departments; and to direct the construction of a talent cadre for the education system.
- To manage the entrance examination for academic credentials for higher education and the administration of records of students’ enrollment status; to make recruitment plans for higher education in collaboration with relevant departments; to take part in drawing up the employment policies for regular (普通) college and university graduates; and to direct regular colleges and universities in their work to facilitate graduates’ job hunts and starting of their own businesses.
- To plan and guide the research by institutions of higher education in the natural sciences, philosophy, and social sciences; to coordinate and guide institutions of higher education in taking part in developing the national innovation system and undertaking the State’s key projects and programs for the development of science and technology (S&T); to guide the construction and development of the S&T innovation of institutions of higher education; to direct the informatization (信息化) of education and promote industry-academia-research institute integration (产学研结合).
- To organize and guide international educational exchanges and cooperation; to formulate policies for Chinese students studying abroad, foreign students studying in China, joint educational programs by Chinese and foreign educational institutions, and the management of schools for the children of foreign nationals; to plan, coordinate, and direct the work of promoting the Chinese language in the world; and to carry out educational cooperation and exchanges with Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan.
- To formulate guidelines and policies for the nationwide standardization and promotion of the spoken and written Chinese language; to compile medium and long-term plans for the development of the Chinese language; to formulate standards and criteria for Chinese and the languages of ethnic minority groups and to organize and coordinate the supervision and the examination of the implementation of the standards and criteria; and to direct the popularization of Mandarin Chinese and the training of teachers of Mandarin.
- To take charge of the work of the conferring of academic degrees; to be responsible for the implementation of the conferral system for academic degrees; and to be responsible for the work towards international reciprocity in academic degrees, mutual recognition of academic degrees, and other such work.
- To coordinate between relevant Chinese departments and UNESCO for cooperation in education, science and technology, culture, and other areas; and to take charge of liaison work with the UNESCO Secretariat and relevant institutions and organizations.
- Guide the management of off-campus education and training for primary and secondary school students (including kindergarten children) and guide local governments to carry out off-campus education and training supervision and comprehensive management in conjunction with relevant departments.
- To carry out other work assigned by the State Council.
(ii) Ministerial Budget Unit Composition
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