by Allie Vreeman
This Thanksgiving, we’re grateful for an abundance of significant research on artificial intelligence and national security. Whether you’re staying put by the fireplace or traveling across the country, the CSET team has you covered with six recommended reads for the long weekend.
Report: Threats to the U.S. Research Enterprise: China’s Talent Recruitment Plans
China’s global rise has been facilitated by a technology transfer campaign that takes advantage of America’s open research ecosystem. The U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations assessed the extent of Chinese exploitation of U.S. federally-funded research in a new report, finding a systematic effort to “recruit U.S.-based researchers, scientists and experts in the public and private sector to provide China with knowledge and intellectual capital.” Artificial intelligence was identified as a particular area of concern for transfer of dual-use technologies. For more on this subject, read CSET’s report on Chinese AI tech transfer.
Report: The China Defence Universities Tracker
From the West, it can be difficult to assess the degree of “military-civil fusion” between the CCP and Chinese universities. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute’s International Cyber Policy Centre (with input from CSET’s Elsa Kania) attempts to capture this phenomenon with a new database that assesses links between China’s universities, military and security agencies and the Communist Party. Among the findings: thousands of Chinese defense industry employees who were sent abroad for training, and 15 civilian universities with a hand in espionage, cyberattacks and illegal exports.
Report: Artificial Intelligence and National Security
Military applications of artificial intelligence present distinct advantages and challenges, especially given the gap between commercial and military AI development. The Congressional Research Service grapples with these trade-offs in its newly-updated AI report, which includes a citation of CSET’s Russian National AI Strategy translation. For more on this topic, read CSET’s Rita Konaev in War on the Rocks on the role AI can play in wartime decision-making.
Strategy: National Artificial Intelligence Strategy: Advancing Our Smart Nation Journey
Singapore launched its national artificial intelligence strategy this month. It identifies five key priorities: smart cities and estates, transport and logistics, healthcare, education, and safety and security—all aimed at boosting innovation and productivity across society. Notably, the strategy includes a Model AI Governance Framework to guide the private sector on questions of ethics and governance.
Paper: Artificial Intelligence in Land Forces: A Position Paper
Germany’s federal armed forces, the Bundeswehr, explores different military applications of AI in a recent publication. The paper recommends the creation of AI development and data centers in pursuit of an indigenous AI workforce and a “meticulously defined political and legal framework” to govern military AI applications.
The Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services submitted its annual report on H-1B “specialty occupation” visas to Congress. Fiscal year 2018 saw a 3.7 percent increase in overall visa petitions, in spite of a declining petition approval rate. Computer-related occupations (including AI-related roles) represented two-thirds of all H-1B visas. To dive deeper on the role of talent in American AI leadership, check out two recent CSET reports: Immigration Policy and the U.S. AI Sector and Strengthening the U.S. AI Workforce.